"Come Zeffiro" - Christian Schmitt oboe Alessandra Gentile piano Compositori ebraici nell'Europa del XX secolo - Chandos Records

 
"Come Zeffiro" - Christian Schmitt oboe Alessandra Gentile piano Compositori ebraici nell'Europa del XX secolo - Chandos Records
STR 37102

            “Come Zeffiro”
            Compositori ebraici
            nell’Europa del XX secolo

            Christian Schmitt oboe
            Alessandra Gentile piano

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"Come Zeffiro" - Christian Schmitt oboe Alessandra Gentile piano Compositori ebraici nell'Europa del XX secolo - Chandos Records
Nello Santi, Armin Jordan, Marcello Viotti, Walter Weller und Heinz Holliger. Dadurch erstreckt sich sein Können über
    “Compositori ebraici nell’Europa del XX secolo”                  das gesamte Repertoire der Lyrik, Kammermusik und symphonischer Werke.
                                                                     Als Kammermusiker ist er aktives Mitglied des Schweizer Bläserquintetts und er beteiligt sich an viele verschiedene
            “Jewish Composers in 20th Century Europe”                Festivals wie Montreux, Gstaad, St. Moritz, Martigny-Champey, Prades, etc..
                                                                     Sehr darauf bedacht, Neuerungen an seinem Instrumente durch Experimente und Erforschung zu entwickeln, spielt er die
     Hans Gál (1890 – 1987)                                          UA verschiedener Werken ihm gewidmet, unter anderen, von Vincent Paulet, Jacopo Baboni Schilingi und Hans Tutschku.
                                                                     Jedes Jahr erhält er Einladungen von verschiedenen Master-Kursen für die “Conservatoires Nationaux Supérieurs” und
     Sonate Op. 85
                                                                     Hochschulen in Europa, sowie von nord-amerikanischen und südost-asiatischen Universitäten.
     1 - Tranquillo con moto                                07’08”   Seit 2013 bildet er ein festes Duo mit der italienischen Pianistin Alessandra Gentile. Zusammen konzertieren sie regelmäs-
     2 - Pavane, Allegretto                                 04’46”   sig in Europa, Süd Amerika und China. Seit 2008 unterrichtet er an der Staatlichen Musikhochschule in Stuttgart und in
     3 - Allegro sostenuto assai                            07’24”   den letzten Jahren bei der Académie Supérieure de Musique – Strassburg und Gast bei der Accademia Musicale Chigiana
                                                                     in Siena. Christian Schmitt ist stet Jurymitglied, bei internationalen Wettbewerben wie “Concours International Gillet-Fox”
                                                                     in Ithacca, New-York, ARD in München, Muri Competition and Barbirolli Competition.
     Pavel Haas (1899 – 1944)
                                                                     Die Pianistin ALESSANDRA GENTILE wurde in Perugia/Italien geboren. Im Jahre 1987 absolvierte sie mit Auszeichnung
     Suita Op. 17                                                    ihr Studium am Konservatorium ihrer Heimatstadt in der Klasse von Annarosa Taddei. Weitere Ausbildung erfolgte bei der
     4 - Furioso                                            03’52”   französischen Pianistin Muriel Chemin, Gyorgi Sandor (Rom), Joaquinn Achucarro (Florenz), Andrzej Jasiński (Salzburg),
     5 - Con fuoco                                          04’36”   Anatol Ugorski und bei Alexander Lonquich in Florenz. In den Jahren 1991-93 Aufbaustudium an der Hochschule für
     6 - Moderato                                           05’19”   Musik in München bei Prof. Gerhard Oppitz. Nach ihrem Abschluss in den Jahren 1993-2002 unterrichtete Alessandra
                                                                     Gentile Klavier an der Münchner Musikhochschule und assistierte zwischen 1994 und 1997 in der Klasse von Professor
                                                                     Gerhard Oppitz. Seit 1988 zahlreiche Auftritte mit Kammermusik-Ensembles bei Festivals wie „Todi-Festival“ oder „I con-
     Leone Sinigaglia (1868 –1944)                                   certi del Foro Italico“ in Rom. Als Solistin spielte sie mit “Wiener Sinfonietta”, „Philharmonisches Orchester Bad
                                                                     Reichenhall”, „Münchner Symphoniker“, „Philharmonisches Orchester der Stadt Regensburg“ u.a. mit. Weitere Konzerte
     7 - 12 Variationen über ein Thema von Franz Schubert            in Bern, im Münchner Prinzregententheater, im Max-Joseph Saal der Münchner Residenz, in der Musikakademie in Prag,
         (Haidenröslein) Op. 19                             08’32”   bei der Brahms-Gesellschaft in Hamburg und vielen anderen Städten Europas. Intensive Zusammenarbeit mit zeitgenös-
                                                                     sischen Komponisten wie Peter Wittrich, Rodion Shchedrin, Fabrizio de Rossi Re und Michele Ignelzi. Teilnahme bei der
                                                                     Einspielung der Klavierwerken von Luca Lombardi für das Label Continuo Records. Rundfunkaufnahmen für die
     Antal Doráti       (1906 - 1988)                                RAI/Italien, den Bayerischen und den Hessischen Rundfunk. Seit 2004 enge Zusammenarbeit mit dem Hamburger
                                                                     Pianisten und Dirigenten Cord Garben mit Erstaufführungen an zwei Klaviere von Franz Liszt und Hermann Behn/Richard
     Duo concertante                                                 Wagner. Im Jahr 2014 Gründung des Ensembles für moderne und zeitgenössische Musik „UmbraeSonorae“.
     8 - Libero, rubatissimo. Lento, rubato                 05’49”   Andere CD-Einspielungen bei Rara Records Music, Brilliant Classics und Stradivarius. Alessandra Gentile ist als
     9 - Lento. Molto vivace                                06’50”   Kammermusikprofessor an den Konservatorien von Cagliari, Fermo und Parma (Italien) tätig und Gastdozent bei verschie-
                                                                     den deutschen Hochschulen und Akademien. An der Stuttgarter Musikhochschule ist sie als Pianistin in der Oboenklasse
                                                                     tätig. Festes Duo bildet sie mit dem Oboisten Christian Schmitt; sie konzertieren in Europa, China und Süd Amerika und
     Gerald Finzi       (1901 – 1956)                                sind regelmäßig eingeladen bei der Sommerakademie der Accademia Musicale Chigiana in Siena.

     10 - Interlude Op. 21                                  10’47”
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"Come Zeffiro" - Christian Schmitt oboe Alessandra Gentile piano Compositori ebraici nell'Europa del XX secolo - Chandos Records
ALESSANDRA GENTILE was born in Perugia/Italy.
In 1987 she completed her studies at the academy of music in her hometown in the class of Annarosa Taddei, a pupil of
the pianists Rio Nardi, Alfredo Casella, and Alfred Cortot. From 1989 to 1991 she studied with French pianist Muriel
Chemin and took master classes with Gyorgi Sandor (Rome), Joaquin Achúcarro (Florence) and Andrzej Jasiński
(Salzburg). In 1996 Alessandra Gentile followed courses with Russian pianist Anatol Ugorski and with Alexander Lonquich                                  Christian Schmitt
in Florence. As permanent member of the ensemble “Il Gruppo di Roma” she performed chamber music in Italy, Germany,
                                                                                                                                                                         oboe
and Switzerland. A concert by the German master pianist Gerhard Oppitz in Perugia brought about a musical turning
point. Alessandra Gentile became his pupil and attended the master class at the University of Music in Munich from 1991
to 1993. From 1993 to 2003 Alessandra Gentile taught at the University of Music in Munich and was assistant professor
in the class of Professor Gerhard Oppitz.
                                                                                                                                                       Alessandra Gentile
Starting in 1997 she has been working as professor for chamber music at the conservatory of music in Cagliari, Parma und                                                 piano
Fermo (Italy) and she works as accompanist pianist at the Hochschule für Musik und darstellende Kunst in Stuttgart.
Since 1988 she has performed with chamber music ensembles at numerous festivals, such as the “Todi-Festival 1988” or
“I concerti del Foro Italico” in Rome; as soloist she played with “Wiener Sinfonietta”, “Philharmonisches Orchester Bad
Reichenhall”, “Münchner Symphoniker”, and others. She gave concerts in Bern, at Munich‘s Prinzregententheater, at the
Acadamy of Music in Prague, in Hamburg (Brahms Society), and many other cities throughout Europe. Her performances
have been recorded by RAI/ Italy and by Bavarian and Hessian Broadcasting in Germany. Her recordings have been issued
by Rara-Records, by Brilliant Classics and Stradivarius. Several compositions have been dedicated to Alessandra Gentile,
like the „Klavierkonzert” by Max Doehlemann, whose premiere took place in Vienna in 1996. She has worked in intensive
collaboration with contemporary composers like Peter Wittrich, Rodion Shchedrin, Fabrizio de Rossi Re, Michele Ignelzi
and Luca Lombardi, of which he recorded the piano works together with Giancarlo Cardini and Alessandra Ammara. In
2015 she founded the Ensemble Umbrae Sonorae for modern and contemporary music. Since 2013 she plays in Duo with
the oboist Christian Schmitt; several concerts in Germany, France, Spain, Switzerland, Czech Republic, China, Sud-
                                                                                                                                     Si ringrazia la Biblioteca del Conservatorio Giuseppe Verdi di Torino
America and Italy. The duo is a guest at the Summer Academy of the Accademia Chigiana in Siena.
                                                                                                                                                  nella persona della Prof. Giuliana Maccaroni
                                                                                                                                        per la gentile concessione del manoscritto di Leone Sinigaglia.
CHRISTIAN SCHMITT geboren im Jahre 1965, hat seinen beruflichen Werdegang aus einem Leben voller Austausch,                     Un sentito grazie agli eredi della famiglia Mafai-Raphaël e a Giorgio Sinigaglia
Entdeckungen, Experimenten, Erfindungen gestaltet. Er erhielt am Conservatoire Supérieur in Lyon (in der Klasse von Jean-                               per il supporto e l'aiuto prestatoci.
Christophe Gayot) seinen ersten Preis in Oboe und das “Diplome supérieur d´études musicales“. Anschließend studiert er
in Karlsruhe bei Thomas Indermühle. Er entwickelte und vervollständigte sein Können weiterhin bei Maurice Bourgue und
                                                                                                                                               Registrazione/Recording: 31 ottobre 2018 e 2 novembre 2018
Heinz Holliger. Seine erste Stelle als Solist trat er 1986 beim “Orchestre Symphonique de Bretagne" / Frankreich und dann
                                                                                                                                                  Studio 2 del Bayerischer Rundfunk di Monaco di Baviera
1987 beim “Opéra du Rhin” in Mulhouse / Frankreich an. Im Jahr 1992 begann er als 1. Solo-Oboist beim
                                                                                                                                    Produttori esecutivi/Executive Producers: Falk Häfner (BR) Roberto Elli (Stradivarius)
Sinfonieonieorchester in Basel / Schweiz.
                                                                                                                                                 Tecnico del suono/Recording engineer: Michael Krogman
Zahlreiche Einladungen erhielt er als Solist bei vielen Orchestern, wie das “Orchestre Symphonique de la Suisse Romande,
                                                                                                                                                       Direzione artistica/Producer: Torsten Schreier
Tonhalle Zürich, Orchestre National de France, Südwestfunk Orchester Baden-Baden, das National Orchester Russlands,
                                                                                                                            Copertina/Cover: Antonietta Raphaël, La Lamentazione di Giobbe, olio su tela, 1967, cm. 160 x 200
mehrere Kammermusik Orchester in Basel und Zürich, Orchestre National und die Oper in Lyon unter Dirigenten wie

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"Come Zeffiro" - Christian Schmitt oboe Alessandra Gentile piano Compositori ebraici nell'Europa del XX secolo - Chandos Records
Fabrizio de Rossi Re, Michele Ignelzi e Luca Lombardi, di cui partecipa alla registrazione integrale delle opere per
                                                 pianoforte. Incide per Rai, Hessischer e Bayerischer Rundfunk e per Brillant, DAD Records e Stradivarius.
                                                 Titolare della cattedra di Musica da Camera ha insegnato nei conservatori di Cagliari, Parma, Fermo e svolge regolar-
                                                 mente attività didattica in varie istituzioni tedesche; lavora inoltre alla Hochschule für Musik und Theater di Stoccarda
                                                 come accompagnatrice.

                                                 CHRISTIAN SCHMITT studied at the Conservatoire National Supérieur de Musique in Lyon and the Staatliche
                                                 Hochschule für Musik in Karlsruhe. Having improved his playing with great masters of the oboe such as Thomas
                                                 Indermühle, Maurice Bourgue and Heinz Holliger he was awarded first prize in music from the European Cultural
                                                 Foundation in Freiburg. He performed as oboe soloist in 1986 in the Orchestre Symphonique de Bretagne, in 1987 in
                                  Antal Doráti
                                                 the Orchestre Symphonique de Mulhouse - Opéra du Rhin and from 1992 to 2012 in the Sinfonieorchester Basel. He
                                                 has also been requested to play with several orchestras such as the Orchestre Symphonique de la Suisse Romande, the
                                                 Tonhalle-Orchester Zürich, the Orchestre National de France, the Südwestfunk Baden-Baden Sinfonieorchester, the
                                                 Orchestre National de Russie, the Zürcher and Basler Kammerorchester, the Orchestre National de Lyon, the Orchestre
                                                 National de l’Opéra de Lyon. He has performed as a soloist under the baton of famous conductors such as Nello Santi,
                                                 Armin Jordan, Marcello Viotti, Heinz Holliger, and Walter Weller.
                                                 He also dedicates himself to the chamber music repertoire, notably with the Schweizer Bläserquintett and has taken part
                                                 in numerous festivals: Montreux, Gstaad, Saint Moritz, Martigny-Champey and Prades. He recorded with the Chamber
                                                 Orchestra Les Solistes de Lorraine a CD of baroque concertos. Christian Schmitt is at the cutting edge of contemporary
                                                 creation for the oboe and different pieces have been written for him by Vincent Paulet, Jacopo Baboni Schilingi and
    Leone Sinigaglia                             Hans Tutschku . In July 2009, he produced for the first time in the Town Hall of Birmingham (UK) the « Sonate pour haut-
                                                 bois et piano » written for him by the French composer Laurent Riou. Together they wrote a transcription for oboe and
                                                 piano of Maurice Ravel’s « Le Tombeau de Couperin » published by Egge Verlag (Koblenz am Rhein).
                                                 He is currently forming a duet with the Italian pianist Alessandra Gentile. Together they have been exploring and per-
                                                 forming the vast oboe repertoire and they are playing in Europa, America and China.
                                                 Recently, Christian Schmitt has been tending more and more, and with great enthusiasm, towards a large range of edu-
                                                 cational activities. Every year he is invited for master-classes in France as well as in Europe and in North American and
                                                 South East Asian universities. He is currently teaching at the Académie Supérieure de Musique de Strasbourg (Haute
                                                 École des Arts du Rhin) and since 2008, he has taught as Professor at the Staatliche Musikhochschule in Stuttgart, and
                                                 at the Accademia Musicale Chigiana in Siena.
                                                 He is a member of numerous juries of competitions and was requested to serve as judge for the 2007 Gillet-Fox
                                                 International Competition in Ithacca-New York, for the ARD Oboe Competition in Munich, for the Muri Competition and
                                                 Barbirolli Competition.

Gerald Finzi           Hans Gál   Pavel Haas
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"Come Zeffiro" - Christian Schmitt oboe Alessandra Gentile piano Compositori ebraici nell'Europa del XX secolo - Chandos Records
CHRISTIAN SCHMITT
studia al Conservatoire National Supérieur de Musique di Lyon e alla Hochschule für Musik di Karlsruhe, istituzioni presso
le quali risulta vincitore di numerosi primi premi. Si perfeziona sotto la guida dei maestri Thomas Indermühle, Maurice         “Compositori ebraici nell’Europa del XX secolo”
Bourgue, Paul Dombrecht e Heinz Holliger e nel 1992 vince il premio della “Fördergemeinschaft “ di Freiburg                     di Guido Salvetti
(Fondazione Europea per la Cultura di Friburgo).
E’ per venti anni primo oboe nel “Sinfonieorchester Basel”, posizione che abbandona nel 2012 per dedicare il suo impe-
                                                                                                                                La scelta dei cinque autori che concorrono alla confezione di questo CD è stata guidata dall’idea di
gno alla classe di oboe presso la Staatliche Hoschschule für Musik di Stoccarda, di cui è professore titolare dal 2008.
                                                                                                                                rintracciare, nel Novecento musicale europeo, la presenza di compositori di origine ebraica che abbia-
Recentemente si è affiancato un nuovo incarico presso l’Académie Supérieure de Musique de Strasbourg (Haute École
des Arts du Rhin). I suoi studenti ricoprono ruoli di primo e secondo oboe in importanti orchestre di tutto il mondo.           no scritto per la formazione oboe e pianoforte.
Sempre attento all’evoluzione del suo strumento è dedicatario di numerosi lavori di diversi compositori, come i francesi        Vi figura anche Antal Doráti (Budapest, 1906 - Gerzensee, 1988). Il suo inserimento nel presente CD
Vincent Paulet e Laurent Riou, l’italiano Jacopo Baboni Schilingi, il tedesco Hans Tutschku, lavori venuti alla luce negli      si basa su una sua dichiarazione del 1981 quando disse di essere “di sangue misto, con una prevalenza
ultimi anni per la la Maison de Radio-France, Birmingham Concert Hall, per il Festival de Compiègne e Nuits Bleues dei          di sangue ebraico”: abbiamo così l’occasione di conoscere, in questo contesto, un brano di intensa e
festival di Arc e Senans. Si è esibito come solista sotto la direzione di Nello Santi, Armin Jordan, Marcello Viotti, Heinz
                                                                                                                                felice inventiva come il Duo concertante per oboe e pianoforte.
Holliger, Walter Weller e altri ancora. Ha inoltre registrato per la Radio Svizzera, Radio DRS, la Radio Suisse Romande,
                                                                                                                                Questo musicista ungherese è stato universalmente conosciuto soprattutto come direttore d’orchestra.
Radio France France-Musique e la Südwestrundfunk SWR2.
Christian Schmitt viene regolarmente invitato a tenere recitals e master-classes in Europa (Germania, Spagna, Francia,          Tra i suoi meriti c’è stato anche quello di aver fondato un’orchestra – la Philharmonia Hungarica – nella
Italia, Inghilterra, Romania) e presso varie università degli Stati Uniti (Columbia University–New York, Austin-Texas), Corea   quale poterono lavorare i tanti ottimi musicisti formatisi nel conservatorio di Budapest, in fuga
del Sud (Seul), Cina (Beijing, Shangai, Hong Kong) e come membro di giuria di concorsi internazionali come il Concorso          dall’Ungheria dopo l’invasione sovietica del 1956.
internazionale Gillet-Fox di Ithaca-New York e Birmingham, il prestigioso Concorso Internazionale dell’ ARD di Monaco           Il Duo concertante (1982-83) è per oboe e pianoforte. Il pianista a cui fu destinata la prima esecuzione,
di Baviera, The Muri Competition 2016 e Barbirolli Competition 2020.
                                                                                                                                avvenuta il 1° aprile 1984 nell’Auditorium del Metropolitan Museum of Arts di New York, fu András
Dal 2013 suona stabilmente in duo con la pianista Alessandra Gentile, con la quale si esibisce regolarmente in Europa,
                                                                                                                                Schiff; l’oboista, che è anche il dedicatario dell’opera, fu nell’occasione Heinz Holliger. Il programma,
Sud America e Cina.
E’ docente invitato ai seminari estivi dell’Accademia Chigiana di Siena.                                                        che comprendeva anche l’op. 94 di Schumann, sollevò entusiasmo di pubblico e di critica. Il brano è
                                                                                                                                articolato in due movimenti. Il primo “Libero, rubatissimo, quasi una cadenza”; il secondo “Molto
ALESSANDRA GENTILE                                                                                                              vivace”.
Nasce a Perugia. Si forma con Annarosa Taddei e Muriel Chemin e riceve importanti impulsi artistici da György Sándor,           È degno di nota che l’altra opera dedicata all’oboe da questo autore, risalente al 1926, cioè a quasi
Andrzej Jasiński, Joaquín Achúcarro , Anatol Ugorski, Alexander Lonquich e Paul Badura-Skoda.
                                                                                                                                sessant’anni prima, sia un dittico: Notturno e Capriccio per oboe e quartetto d’archi, dove il Notturno
Fondamentale è l’incontro con il pianista tedesco Gerhard Oppitz con cui si perfeziona e di cui diventa per alcuni anni
                                                                                                                                è un “Andante, rubato” e il Capriccio è un “Vivace, capriccioso”. Doráti mostra con ciò di rimanere
assistente alla Hochschule für Musik di Monaco di Baviera. Suona come solista con il “Philharmonisches Orchester Bad
Reichenhall”, “Philharmonisches Orchester der Stadt Regensburg” e con i “Münchner Symphoniker”, esibendosi al                   fedele a uno degli schemi costanti nella musica ungherese di stampo popolare, perseguito da Béla
Prinzregententheater, al Gärtnerplatztheater e al Max-Joseph-Saal di Monaco, nel Grosser Saal del Casinò di Berna, alla         Bartók e da Zoltán Kodály, che fu suo maestro al Conservatorio di Budapest: si tratta del Verbunkos
Komische Oper di Berlino, alla “Sala Martinů” di Praga, all’Auditorium del Foro Italico di Roma etc. sotto la direzione,        caratterizzato dall’accostamento/contrasto di una sezione lenta (lassú), con tempo rubato e scrittura di
tra gli altri, di Florian Ludwig, Kurt Rapf e Clemens Kühn.                                                                     declamato libero; e una sezione veloce (friss) in cui il tempo diventa gradualmente sempre più rapido
Già dal 1986 inizia la sua attività cameristica con l’Ensemble “Il Gruppo di Roma”.
                                                                                                                                e ritmicamente martellante.
Lavora stabilmente con il violinista Alessandro Cervo, il flautista Luciano Tristaino, con il clarinettista Davide Bandieri,
                                                                                                                                Ciò che appartiene al gusto e alla tecnica del compositore moderno è invece l’idea che viene suggerita
con il LuDIAL Trio. Intensa la collaborazione con i compositori contemporanei Peter Wittrich, Rodion Schtschedrin,
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"Come Zeffiro" - Christian Schmitt oboe Alessandra Gentile piano Compositori ebraici nell'Europa del XX secolo - Chandos Records
dal titolo: “concertante” significa qui competizione tra i due strumenti, che si impreziosiscono a vicen-        Gerald Finzi (London, 1901 – Oxford, 1956) war ein englischer Komponist italienisch-deutschem
da, con la ricchezza delle figurazioni, nelle sezioni lente, e con il palleggiarsi l’un l’altro di figurazioni   Ursprungs. Er entstammte einer jüdischen Familie, die sich in der Valpadana zwischen Mantua, Ferrara
tematiche e passaggi di bravura. Di qui, anche, la bravura che devono possedere i due strumentisti, dal          und Mailand (wo unter anderen auch der Komponist Aldo Finzi lebte) niedergelassen hatte. Seiner jüdi-
momento che alcune figurazioni semplici per l’oboe sono difficoltose per il pianoforte, e viceversa.             schen Abstammung wegen nahm er häufig deutsch-jüdische Flüchtlinge, die in England Schutz such-
Penso, rispettivamente, alle note ribattute veloci e a velocissime figure scalari ascendenti.                    ten, bei sich zu Hause auf. Sein Name wird oft zusammen mit Ralph Vaugham Williams genannt, mit
                                                                                                                 dem er den Geschmack für eine moderne Musiksprache teilte, die nicht unverständlich werden sollte
L’inserimento di Leone Sinigaglia (Torino, 1868 –1944) in questo CD è dovuto alla sua appartenenza               und den lyrischen Idealen treu blieb. Letzteres erklärt seine häufigen Exkursionen in die Vokalmusik,
a un’importante e ricca famiglia ebrea torinese, nonché alla modalità della sua morte, avvenuta duran-           z.B. zu Chorälen. Auf unserer CD enthalten ist jedoch ein Kammermusikstück, Interlude op. 21,
te un rastrellamento nazista nell’aprile del 1944. La sua importanza trascende questa occasione, trat-           ursprünglich geschrieben für Oboe und Streichquartett. 1936 veröffentlichte der Verlag Hawkes & Son
tandosi di un grande testimone della civiltà musicale mitteleuropea dell’Ottocento, con legami diretti           eine Transkription für Oboe und Klavier von Howard Ferguson, einem Freund und Mitarbeiter von
con Vienna e Praga, con Brahms e Dvorák. Con costoro condivise la passione per la raccolta e la tra-             Gerald Finzi. Nur aus einem Satz bestehend, Andante, wird das ein einziges Thema einer langen und
scrizione dei canti popolari, da cui nacquero le raccolte delle 36 canzoni popolari del Piemonte (1914-          gewundenen Untersuchung unterzogen («ad libitum, senza rigore» ist die am meisten vorzufindende
1927). Centoquattro canzoni, rimaste manoscritte, solo recentemente (2003) sono state pubblicate a               Anweisung), die sich bewegenden expressionistischen Einflüssen öffnet, darunter schwindelerregenden
cura di Andrea Lanza. Dai canti popolari piemontesi trasse anche, in numerose occasioni, i temi per              Kadenzen der Oboe, wobei die Harmonisierung unverkennbar auf Blues Tonleitern aufbaut. Der dem
le grandi forme della tradizione classico-romantica: nella Rapsodia piemontese (1900), nelle                     Stück anhängende traurige Glanz wurde von seinem Biographen John C. Dressler wie folgt aufgefasst
due Danze piemontesi op. 31 (1905), nella Suite per orchestra “Piemonte” (1909); nella Sonata per                „das Thema der Zerbrechlichkeit und Vergänglichkeit der menschlichen Existenz“.
violoncello e pianoforte e in quella per violino e pianoforte.
                                                                                                                 Übersetzung Jana Hildebrandt

Le 12 Variazioni op. 19, del 1903, sul Lied Haidenröslein D. 257 (1815) di Franz Schubert mostrano
molto bene l’appartenenza alla tradizione brahmsiana, per l’uso di una sapiente e affettuosa tecnica
della variazione, in cui il tema (in questo caso una canzoncina semplicissima, quasi infantile, perfet-
tamente in linea con l’idea di ingenuità che Goethe, l’autore del testo, condivise con Friedrich
Schlegel) è accarezzato, abbellito, arricchito. Questo avviene soprattutto nelle variazioni che definirei
“eccentriche” (aggiungono, cioè, tali elementi al tema, da renderlo meno riconoscibile): la n. 8 (pia-
noforte solo: Allegro molto e con brio); la n. 9 (Largo. Molto espressivo); la n. 11 (un poco Adagio e
appassionato); la n. 12 (Allegro burlesco).
Tutto questo ci convince di quanto sia pertinente la dedica di queste Variazioni a Eusebius
Mandyczewski, anch’egli impegnato in quegli stessi anni, assieme ad Hans Gál (come vedremo), nel
rendere un omaggio di altro tipo a Brahms: raccogliendone amorevolmente in edizione tutte le opere.

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interniert. Vom folgenden Sommer 1940 in dieser leidvollen Gefangenschaft erzählt er uns in seinem         Pavel Haas nacque in una famiglia ceco-ebrea di mercanti nella città morava di Brno nel 1899. Visse
Tagebuch. Freigesprochen im Oktober 1940 erhält er einen Platz an der musikalischen Fakultät der           colà fino al dicembre del 1941, quando fu deportato nella città-campo di Terezin. Da lì fu poi internato
Universität von Edinburgh, der Stadt in der er bis zu seinem Tod verbleiben soll. 1947 zählt er zu den     ad Auschwitz-Birkenau, dove fu ucciso nell’ottobre del 1944. Fu allievo di Leoš Janácek alla scuola di
Gründern des Musik Festivals von Edinburgh, wo er sowohl als Dirigent als auch als Pianist auftritt. Als   organo e composizione, da lui diretta a Brno fino al 1919. Da lui apprese una singolare libertà dei
Komponist bleibt er der grossen klassisch-romantischen Tradition treu – sie beschwor er auch im Titel      nessi armonici e la chiarezza degli andamenti melodici, assimilati dallo studio dei canti popolari della
für sein Buch von 1948: „Das goldene Zeitalter von Wien“. Diese Musik hatte er ausgiebig studiert und      Moravia. Nella sua produzione, di cui sopravvive un numero non elevato di composizioni, a causa di
kennengelernt, unter anderem durch die Herausgabe der Opera Omnia der Werke von Brahms zusam-              un suo forte senso di autocritica, spiccano alcune opere strumentali quali la Suite per pianoforte op.13,
men mit Eusebius Mandyczewski für den Verlag Breitkopf & Härtel. Zu seinen Publikationen gehören           del 1935, il Terzo Quartetto op. 15, del 1938 e la Suita per oboe e pianoforte op. 17, del 1939; parte
auch die Monographien über Brahms (1961), Wagner (1963), Schubert (1970) und Verdi (1982).                 del nostro CD e ultima delle opere completate prima della deportazione a Terezin. In queste opere si
In seinen Forschungsarbeiten zeichnet sich Gál durch gut verständlichen Stil, für die Massen leicht        assiste a un progressivo affrancamento dall’uso delle melodie e delle danze popolari, anche se il rife-
erschliessbare Gedankengänge aus, ohne sich in seriösem Fachwissen zu verlieren. Der populärwis-           rimento nazionalistico ceco si concentra nell’uso del Corale di San Venceslao, che è una sorta di cifra
senschaftliche Ansatz öffnete den Weg zur Zusammenarbeit mit dem Sender BBC. Auch als Komponist            personale di Pavel Haas e che appare anche nei Quattro canti su testi cinesi, scritti nel 1944, poco
zeigte er sich bereit, Aufführungsmaterial für gute Amateuren-Ensembles zu liefern: Werke für              prima della morte. Subentrano però qui, soprattutto, i modelli del neoclassicismo di Stravinsky, parti-
Mandoline solo und in Gruppen, für die Blockflöte, für kleine Orchester und Chöre.                         colarmente diffusi in Europa e negli Stati Uniti alla vigilia della seconda guerra mondiale.
In der Sonata für Oboe und Klavier op. 85 von 1965, kommen all diese Erfahrungen und Fertigkeiten          Alla sua musica è stato riconosciuto «un misto di humour e di sottile ironia, unito a profondità di pen-
(die eines Aufführenden, eines Forschers, eines Komponisten und eines populärwissenschaftlichen            siero e ad eleganza» (Alex Ross, 2007). Al suo eclettismo contribuiscono anche uno spiccato interesse
Autors etc.) auf eine spontane und gewinnende Art zusammen. Die Sonate ist in drei Sätzen verfasst.        per il jazz, nonché verso la musica per la radio e per il cinema. Nella Suita op.17 (Furioso – Con fuoco
Der erste Satz (Tranquillo con moto) verläuft ohne große thematische Spannungen: obwohl es die zwei        – Moderato) si fa strada per altro un sorprendente piglio espressionista, con laceranti cromatismi armo-
zu erwartenden Themen und die Durchführung gibt, bleibt er doch auf gelassene Weise diskursiv. Das         nici e martellanti squilibri ritmici. L’uso percussivo del pianoforte e la penetrante declamazione dell’o-
erinnert stark an den kammermusikalischen Brahms der ersten Sonate für Cello und Klavier in e Moll,        boe richiamano l’energia gestuale e visionaria del Bartók della Suite en plein air (“Szabadban”, del
oder auch an die zwei Sonaten für Klarinette (oder Bratsche) op.120.                                       1926).
Der mittlere Satz ist eine Pavane (Allegretto), ein träumerisch schaukelnder Dialog zwischen Oboe und
Klavier. Der abschliessende Satz ist ein “Allegro sostenuto assai” im tanzenden 6/8 Takt. Der Mittelteil    Hans Gál (Brunn am Gebirge [presso Vienna] 1890 – Edimburgo, 1987). Studente al Conservatorio e
dieses Satzes unterscheidet sich jedoch (Poco vivace) mit binärem Metrum und einem stimmungsvol-           all’Università di Vienna, divenne direttore del Conservatorio di Magonza. Nel 1933 fu destituito dal-
len “piano grazioso” der Oboe, wobei das Klavier pianissimo spielt.                                        l’incarico a seguito delle leggi razziali naziste. Ritornò a Vienna, ma, a seguito dell’Anschluss, dovette
Er verzichtet vollkommen auf Experimente, was wahrscheinlich mit der Vorherrschaft der Musik-Lehre         fuggire anche da quella città ed emigrare nel Regno Unito. Allo scoppio della guerra fu internato assie-
eines Benjamin Britten (sicherlich nicht der einzige) in England, aber auch – in eben diesen Jahren –      me alla moglie presso Liverpool, in quanto tedesco immigrato. Passò l’estate del 1940 in questa dolo-
eines Hindemith in Deutschland oder Poulenc und Milhaud in Frankreich zu erklären ist.                     rosa prigionia, che ci raccontò in un diario. Tornato in libertà nell’ottobre del 1940 ebbe un posto nella
                                                                                                           facoltà di musica dell’Università di Edimburgo. Rimase in quella città per il resto della sua vita. Nel
                                                                                                           1947 fu tra i fondatori del Festival musicale di Edimburgo, dove si esibì anche come direttore d’orche-
                                                                                                           stra e come pianista.
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Come compositore si mosse all’interno della grande tradizione classico-romantica austro-tedesca –            Pavel Haas wurde 1899 in eine tschechisch-jüdische Familie in der mährischen Stadt Brno geboren.
quella che usò come titolo di un suo libro del 1948: «l’età dell’oro di Vienna». Di questa musica fu         Von dort wurde er im Dezember 1941 in das Konzentrationslager Theresienstadt deportiert, dann in
profondo conoscitore, sia per aver collaborato all’edizione degli opera omnia di Brahms assieme a            Auschwitz-Birkenau interniert und dort im Oktober 1944 umgebracht. Er war Schüler von Leoš Janácek
Eusebius Mandyczewski per l’editore Breitkopf & Härtel, sia per aver pubblicato apprezzabili mono-           in der von ihm bis 1919 geleiteten Orgel und Kompositions- Schule in Brno. Von ihm übernahm er die
grafie sullo stesso Brahms (1961), su Wagner (1963), su Schubert (1970) e su Verdi (1982).                   einzigartige Fertigkeit der freien harmonischen Verbindungen bei gleichzeitiger Klarheit in der Führung
In questi suoi studi Gál ha un approccio schivo di seriosità specialistiche. Perseguì piuttosto quella che   von Melodien, die zum grossen Teil dem Studium der volkstümlichen Lieder aus Mähren entsprangen.
si potrebbe definire un’”alta divulgazione”, nello stile BBC, con cui pure collaborò. Anche come com-        Aus seinem Schaffen sind uns nicht viele Werke geblieben, da er sehr selbstkritisch war. Von den erhal-
positore si dimostrò disponibile a fornire repertori esecutivi a formazioni strumentali o vocali di buoni    tenen Instrumentalkompositionen sind vor allem die Suite für Klavier op.13 von 1935, das Quartett
dilettanti: numerose le opere per mandolino e per gruppi di mandolini, per il flauto dolce, per piccole      Nummer 3 op. 15 von 1938 und die Suita für Oboe und Klavier op. 17 von 1939 erwähnenswert;
orchestre e piccoli cori.                                                                                    diese Suite, das letzte vollendete Werk vor seiner Deportation nach Theresienstadt, ist in unserer CD
Nella Sonata per oboe e pianoforte op. 85, del 1965, queste varie esperienze e competenze (di ese-           enthalten.
cutore, di studioso, di compositore-divulgatore, ecc.) confluiscono in modo spontaneo e, a mio parere,       Bei seinen Werken können wir einer fortschreitenden Befreiung von volkstümlichen Melodien und
convincente. La Sonata ha un impianto tripartito. Il primo movimento (Tranquillo con moto) è privo di        Tänzen bezeugen, wobei sich die Anspielung auf die tschechische Nation im Gebrauch des Chorals
forti contrasti tematici: nonostante la presenza della consueta bitematicità e di una sezione centrale di    vom heiligen Wenceslaus konzentriert. Dieser ist eine Art persönliche Unterschrift von Pavel Haas, der
“sviluppo”, tutto il movimento è pacatamente discorsivo come avviene frequentemente nel Brahms               ihn auch in den Vier Liedern zu chinesischen Texten von 1944 verwendet, kurz vor seinem Tod. Bei die-
cameristico della prima Sonata in minore per violoncello e pianoforte, o nelle due Sonate per clarinet-      sen zeigt sich jedoch auch stark der Einfluss des Neoklassizismus von Strawinsky, besonders verbreitet
to (o viola) op. 120.                                                                                        im Europa und in den Vereinigten Staaten vor dem zweiten Weltkrieg.
Il tempo centrale è una Pavane (Allegretto). Un poco svagata e ciondolante, intessuta dal rimando con-       Seiner Musik wurde „eine Mischung aus Humor und subtiler Ironie, verbunden mit Tiefe und Eleganz“
tinuo tra l’oboe e il pianoforte. Il tempo conclusivo è un “Allegro sostenuto assai”, dove il tempo in       zugeschrieben (Alex Ross, 2007).
6/8 si scioglie costantemente in tempi ternari rapinosamente danzanti. Solo un episodio centrale (Poco       Für seine Vielseitigkeit sprechen zudem sein ausgesprochenes Interesse an Neuigkeiten wie dem Jazz
vivace) si distingue per un tempo binario con un suggestivo “piano grazioso” all’oboe e un pianissimo        und der Musik für Radio und Film. In der Suita op.17 (Furioso – Con fuoco – Moderato) äussert sich
al pianoforte.                                                                                               zusätzlich ein überraschender Hang zum Expressionismus, der mit erschütternden chromatischen
Totale rinuncia, quindi, a un pur piccolo accenno alla sperimentazione. E dimostrazione di un magi-          Harmonien und hämmernde rhythmischen Ungleichgewichten zu Tage tritt. Der perkussive Gebrauch
stero, certo non solitario nell’Inghilterra di Britten, ma anche – in quegli anni – nella Germania di        des Klaviers und das durchdringende Deklamieren der Oboe erinnern an die Energie der visionären
Hindemith, o nella Francia di Poulenc e Milhaud.                                                             Gestik eines Bartók in der Suite en plein air (“Szabadban”, 1926).

                                                                                                             Hans Gál (Brunn am Gebirge [bei Wien] 1890 – Edinburgh, 1987). Erst Student am Konservatorium
Gerald Finzi (Londra, 1901 – Oxford, 1956) è stato un compositore inglese, di origine italo-tedesca.
                                                                                                             und der Universität von Wien wird er Direktor des Mainzer Konservatoriums. 1933 wurde er jedoch
Discendeva da una famiglia ebrea stabilitasi in Valpadana tra Mantova, Ferrara e Milano (dove visse,
                                                                                                             wegen des Eintretens der nazi-deutschen Rassengesetze seines Amtes enthoben. Zurück in Wien muss
tra gli altri, il compositore Aldo Finzi). Questa sua ascendenza ebraica lo portò ad ospitare frequente-
                                                                                                             er jedoch durch den Anschluss nach England fliehen. Beim Ausbruch des Krieges wurde er wegen sei-
mente nella sua casa i rifugiati ebreo-tedeschi che cercavano salvezza nel Regno Unito. Il suo nome è
                                                                                                             ner deutschen Nationalität festgenommen und zusammen mit seiner Frau in der Nähe von Liverpool
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musikalischen Aufführung zweier Instrumente hin. Beim Werben um musikalische Ideen bereichern sie           costantemente accostato a quello di Ralph Vaugham Williams, con cui condivise gli ideali estetici per
sich gegenseitig; sei es durch das Aufblühen der Verzierungen im langsamen Teil, sei es durch den           una musica aggiornata nel linguaggio, ma sempre attenta alla comprensibilità e alla comunicazione
kunstvollen Wechsel der Bravour-Passagen des schnellen Teils. Dabei haben die ausführenden                  lirica. Questo ideale lo portò a frequentare soprattutto i generi vocali e corali. Nel nostro CD figura
Instrumentalisten ungleiche technische Komplikationen zu bewältigen. So zum Beispiel sind sich wie-         invece un brano cameristico, Interlude op. 21, originariamente destinato all’oboe con quartetto d’ar-
derholende staccato Noten für den Oboisten leichter auszuführen als für den Pianisten, der jedoch bei       chi. Nel 1936 l’editore Hawkes & Son ne pubblicò una trascrizione per oboe e pianoforte, dovuta ad
schnellen aufsteigenden Tonleiterfiguren eindeutig im Vorteil ist.                                          un amico e collaboratore di Finzi, Howard Ferguson. Si tratta di una composizione in un solo movi-
                                                                                                            mento, Andante, che dipana un unico tema lungo un percorso sinuoso («ad libitum, senza rigore» è
Leone Sinigaglia (Torino, 1868 –1944) stammt aus einer reichen jüdischen Familie aus Turin und starb        l’indicazione dominante) e aperto a commosse accensioni espressive, tra cui vertiginose cadenze
bei einer nazistischen Razzia im April 1944. Auf diese furchtbare Weise endete das Leben eines großen       dell’oboe. L’armonizzazione è scopertamente tributaria della cosiddetta “scala blues”. Questa patina
Zeugen der musikalischen Welt Mitteleuropas des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts, der durch seine                   di tristezza è stata commentata dal suo biografo John C. Dressler come «il tema della fragilità e della
Beziehungen zu Brahms und Dvorák Verbindungen bis Wien und Prag vorweisen konnte.                           transeunticità dell’esistenza».
So wie die beiden berühmten Komponisten liebte auch er es, volkstümliche Melodien aufzugreifen und
zu transkribieren. So entstand die Sammlung der 36 canzoni popolari del Piemonte (1914-1927). Es
handelt sich um hundertvier handgeschriebene Lieder, die erst 2003 von Andrea Lanza veröffentlicht
wurden. Volkstümliche Melodien aus Piemont verwendet er auch oft bei den Themen seiner grossen
klassisch-romantischen Kompositionsformen: Bei der Rapsodia piemontese (1900), bei den zwei
Danze piemontesi op. 31 (1905), bei der Suite per orchestra “Piemonte” (1909); sowohl bei der Sonate
für Cello und Klavier als auch bei der Sonate für Violine und Klavier.

Die 12 Variationen op. 19 von 1903 über das Lied Haidenröslein D. 257 (1815) von Franz Schubert
stehen ganz in der Tradition des Kompositionsverfahrens der Variationen von Brahms:
Das Thema (in diesem Fall ein sehr einfaches Lied, fast kindlich und damit auf den Spuren der Idee der
arglosen Naivität, die Goethe, der Autor des Textes, mit Friedrich Schlegel teilte) wird kunstvoll erkun-
det, verschönert und bereichert. Vor allem ersichtlich ist das bei den Variationen die ich “exzentrisch”
zu nennen wage (sie fügen verschiedene Elemente dem Thema zu, das dadurch weniger leicht zu
erkennen ist): Die Variation Nr. 8 (Klavier solo: Allegro molto e con brio); die Variation Nr. 9 (Largo.
Molto espressivo); die Variation Nr. 11 (un poco Adagio e appassionato); die Variation Nr. 12 (Allegro
burlesco). Die Widmung an Eusebius Mandyczewski ist durchaus bezeichnend. Zusammen mit Hans
Gál (wie wir später sehen werden) war er in eben diesen Jahren damit beschäftigt, Brahms eine weitere
Art der Ehre zu erweisen: Das sorgfältige Zusammenstellen und Veröffentlichen aller seiner Werke.

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“Jewish Composers in 20th Century Europe”                                                                  “Jüdische Komponisten im Europa des 20. Jahrhunderts”
by Guido Salvetti                                                                                          von Guido Salvetti

The five composers contributing to the musical selections of this CD were each chosen through the          Die vorliegende CD entstand aus dem Wunsch heraus die Musik jüdischer Komponisten für Oboe und
idea of tracing the presence of composers of Jewish origin who wrote for oboe and piano in twentieth       Klavier im vergangenen Jahrhundert zu erforschen. Dabei wird den Werken von 5 Autoren Raum gege-
century European music.                                                                                    ben.
One can also find a work by Antal Doráti (Budapest, 1906 - Gerzensee, 1988). His inclusion in this         Unter den ausgewählten Komponisten befindet sich Antal Doráti (Budapest, 1906 - Gerzensee, 1988).
CD is based on his statement from 1981, when he declared to be “of mixed blood, with a prevalence          Seinen Platz auf dieser CD hat er sich verdient, da er 1981 erklärte “aus gemischtem Blut, mit jedoch
of Jewish blood.” Thus we have the opportunity, in this context, to discover a work of intense and play-   vorherrschendem jüdischen Anteil” zu sein. So wurden wir auf eines seiner Stücke voller
ful creativity: the Duo concertante for oboe and piano.                                                    Erfindungsgeist und geglückter musikalischer Ideen aufmerksam, das hier vorgestellt werden darf: Das
This Hungarian musician was universally known to most as a conductor. His merits include the foun-         Duo concertante für Oboe und Klavier.
ding of an orchestra - the Philharmonia Hungarica - which provided work for the many excellent musi-       Der ungarische Musiker ist weltweit vor allem als Dirigent bekannt. Zu seinen Verdiensten zählt unter
cians who trained at the Budapest conservatory, but had to flee from Hungary after the Soviet invasion     anderem die Gründung des Orchesters – Philharmonia Hungarica- aus vielen der besten Musiker des
of 1956.                                                                                                   Konservatoriums von Budapest, die nach der sowjetischen Invasion von 1956 fliehen mussten.
The Duo concertante (1982-83) is for oboe and piano. The first performance took place on April 1,          Das Duo concertante (1982-83) wurde für Oboe und Klavier geschrieben. Der Pianist, der die
1984 in the Auditorium of the Metropolitan Museum of Arts in New York City, and was played by              Uraufführung am 1. April 1984 im Auditorium des Metropolitan Museum of Arts von New York spielen
pianist András Schiff; the oboist on this occasion, who is also the dedicatee of the work, was Heinz       sollte, war niemand geringerer als András Schiff; ebenso beeindruckend der Oboist, dem sogar das
Holliger. The program, which also included the Op. 94 by Schumann, raised public enthusiasm and            Stück geweiht war, Heinz Holliger. Das Konzert Programm umfasste bei dieser Gelegenheit auch
criticism. The piece is divided into two movements: the first “Libero, rubatissimo, quasi una cadenza;”    Schumanns Op. 94 und erntete den enthusiastischen Beifall sowohl des Publikums als auch der Kritik.
the second “Molto vivace.”                                                                                 Das Duo concertante besteht aus zwei Sätzen. Der erste Satz “Frei im Zeitmass, rubatissimo, quasi una
It is noteworthy to mention that the other work dedicated to the oboe by this author, dating back to       cadenza”; und der zweite Satz “Molto vivace”. Wir möchten hier noch auf ein anderes Werk des
1926, almost sixty years prior, is a diptych: Notturno e Capriccio for oboe and string quartet. The        Komponisten für Oboe von 1926 hinweisen, ein Diptychon, das fast 60 Jahre zuvor geschrieben wor-
Notturno is “Andante, rubato,” and the Capriccio is “Vivace, capriccioso.” In this work, Doráti remains    den war: Notturno und Capriccio für Oboe und Streichquartett. Das Notturno ist mit “Andante, rubato”
faithful to one of the constant themes in popular Hungarian music pursued by Béla Bartók and by his        und das Capriccio mit “Vivace, capriccioso” bezeichnet. Doráti bleibt auf diese Weise einem der kom-
former teacher at the Budapest Conservatory, Zoltán Kodály. It is known as the Verbunkos and is cha-       positorischen Modelle ungarischer Musik treu, ausgezeichnet vor allem durch den Einfluss volkstümli-
racterized by the juxtaposition/contrast of a slow section (lassú), with tempo rubato and free declama-    cher Melodien von Komponisten wie Béla Bartók und Zoltán Kodály, seinem Lehrer am
tion; and a fast section (friss), in which time gradually becomes faster and rhythmically pounding.        Konservatorium von Budapest. Es handelt sich dabei um das Kompositions-Schema des sogenannten
A peculiarity belonging to the taste and technique of the modern composer is the idea that is suggested    Verbunkos, der durch das Zusammenführen/Gegenüberstellen eines langsamen Teils (lassú), im tempo
by the title: “concertante” here means a competition between the two instruments which embellish           rubato als freiem Rezitativ, und eines schnellen Teils (friss) entsteht, wobei das Tempo langsam aber ste-
each other with the richness of the figurations in the slow sections, and with the exchange of thematic    tig zunimmt und auch der Rhythmus zu einem regelrechten Hämmern ansteigt. Der Titel zeigt uns
figurations and virtuosic passages. Hence, great skill is required by both instrumentalists since some     jedoch auch das Zutun des Komponisten der Moderne: “concertante“ deutet auf einen Wettbewerb der
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& Son published a transcription for oboe and piano, thanks to Howard Ferguson, a friend and collabo-   simple figures for the oboe are difficult for the piano and vice versa; one can call to mind, respectively,
rator of Finzi.                                                                                        fast repeating notes and very fast ascending scalar figures.
It is a composition in a single movement (Andante), which unravels a single theme along a sinuous
path (“Ad libitum, senza rigore” is the dominant indication) and progresses towards upward moving      The inclusion of Leone Sinigaglia (Turin, 1868 –1944) in this CD owes to his upbringing in an impor-
expressive passages, including vertiginous cadences for the oboe. The harmonization is openly tribu-   tant and wealthy Jewish family in Turin, as well as to the manner of his death, which occurred during
tary to the so-called “blues scale.” This patina of sadness has been commented on by his biographer    a Nazi round-up in April 1944. His importance transcends this occasion, as he was a great witness of
John C. Dressler as “the theme of fragility and the transient nature of existence.”                    the 19th century central European musical civilization, and maintained direct links with Vienna and
Translation Ashley Marie Slater                                                                        Prague, and with Brahms and Dvorák. He shared a passion with them for collecting and transcribing
                                                                                                       folk songs, and from this passion, the 36 Canti popolari del Piemonte (1914-1927) collections were
                                                                                                       born. Only recently, one hundred and four songs still handwritten, have been published by Andrea
                                                                                                       Lanza (2003). Sinigaglia drew upon the Piedmontese folk songs on numerous occasions as themes for
                                                                                                       the great forms of the classical-romantic tradition: Rapsodia piemontese (1900), Danze piemontesi Op.
                                                                                                       31 (1905), Suite for Orchestra “Piemonte” (1909), Sonata for cello and piano and Sonata for violin and
                                                                                                       piano.
                                                                                                       The 12 Variationen Op. 19 from 1903, based on Franz Schubert’s Lied Heidenröslein D. 257 (1815),
                                                                                                       show very well that they belong to the Brahmsian tradition by the use of a wise and affectionate vari-
                                                                                                       ation technique, in which the theme (in this case a little song, very simple, almost childlike and per-
                                                                                                       fectly in line with the idea of naivety that the author of the text Goethe shared with Friedrich Schlegel)
                                                                                                       is caressed, embellished and enriched. This is demonstrated above all in the variations that I would
                                                                                                       define as “eccentric” (they add elements to the theme in order to make it less recognizable): the n. 8
                                                                                                       (piano solo: Allegro molto e con brio), the n. 9 (Largo. Molto espressivo), the n. 11 (Adagio e appas-
                                                                                                       sionato), the n. 12 (Allegro burlesco).
                                                                                                       All this reinforces the pertinency of the dedication of these variations to Eusebius Mandyczewski, who
                                                                                                       was also busily working in those same years with Hans Gál (as we shall see), on another kind of tribute
                                                                                                       to Brahms: lovingly collecting and creating editions of his complete works.

                                                                                                       Pavel Haas was born into a Czech-Jewish family of merchants in the Moravian city of Brno in 1899.
                                                                                                       He lived there until December 1941, when he was deported to the city-camp of Terezin. From there
                                                                                                       he was later interned at Auschwitz-Birkenau, where he was killed in October 1944. He was a pupil of
                                                                                                       Leoš Janácek at the school of organ and composition, which he directed in Brno until 1919. From
                                                                                                       Janácek, he learned a singular harmonic freedom and clarity of melodic line, assimilated from the study
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of Moravian folk songs.                                                                                   Breitkopf & Härtel, and for having published valuable monographs on Brahms (1961), Wagner (1963),
Among his works, of which a limited number of compositions survive due to his strong sense of self-       Schubert (1970) and Verdi (1982).
criticism, some instrumental works stand out. For instance, the Suite for piano Op.13 (1935), the Third   In these studies, Gál has a shy approach to specialized seriousness. Instead, he pursued what could be
Quartet Op. 15 (1938) and the Suita for oboe and piano Op. 17 (1939), which is part of this CD and        called “high disclosure,” in the BBC style, with which he also collaborated. As a composer, he also pro-
the last of the works completed before the composer’s deportation to Terezin. In these works, we are      ved willing to provide practical repertoire for instrumental or vocal formations of good amateurs,
witnessing a progressive liberation from the use of folk melodies and dances, even though one can hear    including numerous works for mandolin and for groups of mandolins, for the recorder and for small
the Saint Wenceslaus Chorale - a Czech nationalist reference and a sort of personal signature of Pavel    orchestras and choirs.
Haas, which also appears in the Four Songs on Chinese Poetry written in 1944, shortly before his death.   In the Sonata for oboe and piano Op. 85 (1965), these various experiences and skills (performer, scho-
Here, however, the models of Stravinsky’s neoclassicism take over, as they were particularly wide-        lar, composer-popularizer, etc.) come together spontaneously, and in my opinion, quite convincingly.
spread in Europe and in the United States on the eve of the second world war.                             The sonata has a tripartite layout; the first movement (Tranquillo con moto) has no strong thematic con-
                                                                                                          trasts. Despite the presence of the usual two themes and a central section of “development,” the whole
His music was recognized as “a mixture of humor and subtle irony, combined with depth of thought          movement is placidly discursive as frequently occurs in Brahms’ first Sonata in e minor for cello and
and elegance” (Alex Ross, 2007). His eclecticism is also evident by a marked interest in jazz, as well    piano, or in the Two Sonatas for clarinet (or viola) Op. 120.
as music for radio and cinema. In the Suita Op.17 (Furioso - Con fuoco - Moderato) a surprising expres-   The central part is a Pavane (Allegretto) - slightly distracted and dangling, woven by the continuous
sionist attitude makes headway with lacerating harmonic chromaticism and pounding rhythmic imba-          references between the oboe and the piano. The concluding part is an “Allegro sostenuto assai,” where
lances. The percussive use of the piano and the penetrating declamation of the oboe recall the gestural   6/8 signatures constantly melt into swiftly dancing ternary tempi. Only a central episode (Poco vivace)
and visionary energy of Bartók’s Suite en plein air (“Szabadban,” 1926).                                  stands out in binary time and has an evocative “piano grazioso” for the oboe and a pianissimo for the
                                                                                                          piano.
                                                                                                          Therefore, we see a total renunciation of even a small hint of experimentation and demonstration of
Hans Gál (Brunn am Gebirge [near Vienna], 1890 - Edinburgh, 1987), was a student at the                   complete mastery, certainly not only in Britten’s England, but also - in those years - in the Germany of
Conservatory and the University of Vienna and later became director of the Mainz Conservatory. In         Hindemith, or in the France of Poulenc and Milhaud.
1933, he was dismissed from his position following the enforcement of Nazi racial laws. He returned
to Vienna, but following the Anschluss, he also had to flee that city and emigrate to the United
Kingdom. At the outbreak of the war, he was interned with his wife near Liverpool, as a German immi-      Gerald Finzi (London 1901 - Oxford, 1956) was an English composer of Italian-German origin. He
grant. He spent the summer of 1940 in painful captivity, as he told us later in a diary. Set free in      descended from a Jewish family settled in Valpadana between Mantua, Ferrara and Milan (where the
October 1940, he gained a position in the music department at the University of Edinburgh and             composer Aldo Finzi lived, among others). His Jewish ancestry led him to frequently host German-
remained there for the rest of his life. In 1947, he was among the founders of the Edinburgh Music        Jewish refugees seeking salvation in the UK in his home. His name is frequently likened to that of Ralph
Festival, where he also performed as a conductor and pianist.                                             Vaughan Williams, with whom he shared aesthetic ideals, namely for music to be elevated by langua-
As a composer, he moved within the great classical-romantic tradition - the one he also used as the       ge, but always attentive to intelligibility and lyrical communication. As a result, this ideal resulted in a
title of his 1948 book: “The Golden Age of Vienna.” He was a great connoisseur of this music, both for    focus on mainly vocal and choral genres. On this CD, one can find the Interlude Op. 21 - a chamber
having collaborated on Brahms’ complete works with Eusebius Mandyczewski for the publisher                music piece originally intended for oboe and string quartet. However, in 1936 the publisher Hawkes
   12                                                                                                                                                                                                        13

                                                                                                                                           0
                                                                                                                         PMS   PMS
                                                                                                                        000 000
of Moravian folk songs.                                                                                   Breitkopf & Härtel, and for having published valuable monographs on Brahms (1961), Wagner (1963),
Among his works, of which a limited number of compositions survive due to his strong sense of self-       Schubert (1970) and Verdi (1982).
criticism, some instrumental works stand out. For instance, the Suite for piano Op.13 (1935), the Third   In these studies, Gál has a shy approach to specialized seriousness. Instead, he pursued what could be
Quartet Op. 15 (1938) and the Suita for oboe and piano Op. 17 (1939), which is part of this CD and        called “high disclosure,” in the BBC style, with which he also collaborated. As a composer, he also pro-
the last of the works completed before the composer’s deportation to Terezin. In these works, we are      ved willing to provide practical repertoire for instrumental or vocal formations of good amateurs,
witnessing a progressive liberation from the use of folk melodies and dances, even though one can hear    including numerous works for mandolin and for groups of mandolins, for the recorder and for small
the Saint Wenceslaus Chorale - a Czech nationalist reference and a sort of personal signature of Pavel    orchestras and choirs.
Haas, which also appears in the Four Songs on Chinese Poetry written in 1944, shortly before his death.   In the Sonata for oboe and piano Op. 85 (1965), these various experiences and skills (performer, scho-
Here, however, the models of Stravinsky’s neoclassicism take over, as they were particularly wide-        lar, composer-popularizer, etc.) come together spontaneously, and in my opinion, quite convincingly.
spread in Europe and in the United States on the eve of the second world war.                             The sonata has a tripartite layout; the first movement (Tranquillo con moto) has no strong thematic con-
                                                                                                          trasts. Despite the presence of the usual two themes and a central section of “development,” the whole
His music was recognized as “a mixture of humor and subtle irony, combined with depth of thought          movement is placidly discursive as frequently occurs in Brahms’ first Sonata in e minor for cello and
and elegance” (Alex Ross, 2007). His eclecticism is also evident by a marked interest in jazz, as well    piano, or in the Two Sonatas for clarinet (or viola) Op. 120.
as music for radio and cinema. In the Suita Op.17 (Furioso - Con fuoco - Moderato) a surprising expres-   The central part is a Pavane (Allegretto) - slightly distracted and dangling, woven by the continuous
sionist attitude makes headway with lacerating harmonic chromaticism and pounding rhythmic imba-          references between the oboe and the piano. The concluding part is an “Allegro sostenuto assai,” where
lances. The percussive use of the piano and the penetrating declamation of the oboe recall the gestural   6/8 signatures constantly melt into swiftly dancing ternary tempi. Only a central episode (Poco vivace)
and visionary energy of Bartók’s Suite en plein air (“Szabadban,” 1926).                                  stands out in binary time and has an evocative “piano grazioso” for the oboe and a pianissimo for the
                                                                                                          piano.
                                                                                                          Therefore, we see a total renunciation of even a small hint of experimentation and demonstration of
Hans Gál (Brunn am Gebirge [near Vienna], 1890 - Edinburgh, 1987), was a student at the                   complete mastery, certainly not only in Britten’s England, but also - in those years - in the Germany of
Conservatory and the University of Vienna and later became director of the Mainz Conservatory. In         Hindemith, or in the France of Poulenc and Milhaud.
1933, he was dismissed from his position following the enforcement of Nazi racial laws. He returned
to Vienna, but following the Anschluss, he also had to flee that city and emigrate to the United
Kingdom. At the outbreak of the war, he was interned with his wife near Liverpool, as a German immi-      Gerald Finzi (London 1901 - Oxford, 1956) was an English composer of Italian-German origin. He
grant. He spent the summer of 1940 in painful captivity, as he told us later in a diary. Set free in      descended from a Jewish family settled in Valpadana between Mantua, Ferrara and Milan (where the
October 1940, he gained a position in the music department at the University of Edinburgh and             composer Aldo Finzi lived, among others). His Jewish ancestry led him to frequently host German-
remained there for the rest of his life. In 1947, he was among the founders of the Edinburgh Music        Jewish refugees seeking salvation in the UK in his home. His name is frequently likened to that of Ralph
Festival, where he also performed as a conductor and pianist.                                             Vaughan Williams, with whom he shared aesthetic ideals, namely for music to be elevated by langua-
As a composer, he moved within the great classical-romantic tradition - the one he also used as the       ge, but always attentive to intelligibility and lyrical communication. As a result, this ideal resulted in a
title of his 1948 book: “The Golden Age of Vienna.” He was a great connoisseur of this music, both for    focus on mainly vocal and choral genres. On this CD, one can find the Interlude Op. 21 - a chamber
having collaborated on Brahms’ complete works with Eusebius Mandyczewski for the publisher                music piece originally intended for oboe and string quartet. However, in 1936 the publisher Hawkes
   12                                                                                                                                                                                                        13

                                                                                                                                           0
                                                                                                                         PMS   PMS
                                                                                                                        000 000
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